Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data

Nathan A. Serazin, Bassey Edem, Sarah R. Williams, Justin R. Ortiz, Anand Kawade, Manoj Kumar Das, Maja Šubelj, Kathryn M. Edwards, Shreemanta K. Parida, T. Anh Wartel, Flor M. Munoz, Patricia Bastero a


Diagnostic accuracy under typical circumstances is imperfect because ARDS is a heterogeneous disease process. Furthermore, case definitions that require positive pressure or mechanical ventilation, chest imaging, and blood gas analyses pose barriers to diagnosis in resource-limited settings. To address these concerns, diagnostic criteria that are stratified according to level of certainty were created.

These levels reflect the accuracy of the evidence to support the diagnosis. Levels of certainty include confirmed ARDS (Level 1), probable ARDS (Level 2), and suspected ARDS (Level 3). In addition, Level 4 defines cases with insufficient data to make the diagnosis, and Level 5, cases for which there is sufficient data to attribute ARDS to another cause (i.e., not a case of ARDS).

SPEAC has developed Companion Guides that contain resources and tools specific to the events described in the case definitions.